Since this paper was written two new discoveries were made at CERN. In the first,
Ds3*(2860)ˉ, a meson that contains a charm anti-quark and a strange quark, was found. .
The number 2860 is the mass of the particle in the units of MeV/c2.
Using the quark table contained here, the kinetic energy component of the mass equivalence is 1548 + 510 = 2038 MeV/c^2
In the second discovery, physicists observed the first particle with one quark from each family: Ξ−b, consisting of one
bottom, one strange, and one down quark, in two higher energy states. They observed signatures for two particles at
masses of 5935 and 5955 mega-electron-volts
These tables yield kinetic energy values of 5790 and 5795 MeV.
An equation (1) is presented which introduces a velocity term based upon Newton’s law of gravity. This term is included in equation (2) which is proposed as a universal velocity law. These two equations are then used to: 1. establish a maximum energy ceiling for cosmic rays, 2. account for the rotational velocities of stars formed from interstellar clouds, 3. predict solar planetary velocities, 4. apply them to the universe itself. Quantities are calculated which have not been calculated before, with modest success.